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Technological paradigms and technological trajectories – 1982

Giovanni Dosi – 1982 There is a recognised relationship between economic growth and technical progress; however the intimacies of the relationship includes technical development in relation to the market in which it serves together with the role of institutions ability to influence the rate and direction of technical change, the theories of technical change have…

Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach – July 1983

At a time when well-being was measured as either opulence (income) or utility (happiness, desire fulfilment), Amartya Sen introduced a more elaborate human development model that included social and psychological dimensions. Developed in various documents from the early 1980s onwards, the Capability Approach (CA) evaluates well-being in terms of “capabilities”, the real opportunities available to…

Last Child in the Woods

Richard Louv’s book, ‘Last Child in the Woods’ illustrates the alarming impact that a growing divide between children and the outdoors has had on childhood development and environmental outlooks. He introduces the concept of ‘nature-deficit disorder’, which claims that as children spend less and less time in ‘unstructured’ natural environments they lose the necessary facet…

First issue of the Whole Earth Catalog

“We are as gods, and might as well get good at it.” — Stewart Brand, The Whole Earth Catalog, 1968. A self-published occasional ecology magazine, which ran from 1968-1974 (with various successors), The Whole Earth Catalog provided a rallying point for the US environmental movement, ‘where primitive wood stoves and survivalist supplies for counterculture neo-Luddites…

Joseph Schumpeter: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 1942

The work within this book has been an important building block towards the understanding of innovation. In this seminal book, Schumpeter first identified the notion of creative destruction. Schumpeter used this term to describe the entry of innovative entrepreneurs within markets dominated by larger firms. It conveys the idea that new entrants would have to…

“Scientific Research and Social Needs” by Julian Huxley, 1934

Julian Huxley’s book “Scientific Research and Social Needs“, which was published in 1934, deals with British science efforts, with particular reference to social needs. He sees science as a social activity which itself demands scientific study. The basis of the book are twelve talks and discussions that were broadcasted on the British Broadcasting Corporation. The…

Farmer First Revisited

In the context of current complex and urgent needs for agricultural innovation, effective research and development systems and efficient adaptation methods are required in both advanced and developing economies. This book, published twenty years after the original ‘Farmer First’ reviewed experiences offarmer-led innovation in agricultural research and development and detailed some practical examples of agricultural…

Introduction of the German Council for Sustainable Development

In April 2001 the Council for Sustainable Development, consisting of 15 councillors, was set up by the German Federal Government in order to contribute to implement the National Sustainability Strategy. It has since been mandated to advise the Federal Government on all items of the sustainability strategy, to propose concrete action plans and projects, and…

Dow Jones Sustainability Index in 1999

Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) is the longest-running of its kind, built by Sustainability Asset Management (SAM) and Dow Jones Index in 1999. A family of different indexes, its goal focuses on providing a clear standard to investors interested in corporate performance around environmental, economic and social goals, increasingly regarded by many investors as key…

UN World Summit on Sustainable Development – Johannesburg (2002)

The world summit on sustainable development was held by United Nations in Johannesburg, South Africa from 26 August to 4 September in 2002. It was a follow-up conference of the ‘Earth Summit’ which was took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. Agenda 21 was a major achievement of the Earth Summit – an…